Technical Reports at the Centre for Research in Computing

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[1] Richard Power. Coherence relations in ontologies. Technical Report 2011/01, January 2011. [ bib | .pdf ]
I have proposed a method for assigning a rhetorical relation to a pair of OWL statements. Briefly, statements are interpreted as subject and predi- cate sets, and the six set relationships within and across the two statements are classified to derive a ‘coherence pattern’. Of 46 consistent patterns with subjects included in predicates, we selected eleven which were considered co- herent by three different judges. We found that these patterns were related to traditional rhetorical concepts like consequence, elaboration, comparison, contrast, and example, although we were not able to assign relations depend- ing on causality, time, or probability. The merit of the proposed method is that it makes use of the kind of information that an OWL ontology does provide — namely, statements elsewhere in the ontology that are relevant to the pair of statements under consideration.

[2] Jon G. Hall and Lucia Rapanotti. Supporting Computing professionals on part-time research degrees. Technical Report 2011/02, January 2011. [ bib | .pdf ]
The development of competent researchers is a key aspect of academic practice, and the only way to ensure continuity of our profession. It is also a key enabler of the knowledge society, with research skills in ever greater demand both in industry and academia. In the UK and elsewhere, the traditional way of developing future researchers through research degrees is under scrutiny with pressure on institutions to look beyond the needs of academia and to cater more fully for those of the working professional. In this paper we analyse the challenges raised with reference to our experience of supporting Computing professionals enrolled on part-time research degrees, contextualised in current and emergent institutional and national practices. We also propose a model of supervision we have refined over the years, in the hope that our experience can be of benefit to other academics who find themselves facing similar challenges.

[3] Jon G. Hall, James Naish, Lucia Rapanotti, and Liping Zhao (eds). Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Workshop on Applications and Advances of Problem Orientation. Technical Report 2011/03, March 2011. [ bib | .pdf ]
Dear friend and colleague, Thank you for your contribution to and participation in the IWAAPO 2010 workshop! It is good to know that the community has you at its heart. As you will see from the enclosed programme there is a very good balance of new to experienced academics, covering a wide range of interesting topics. We hope that the interactions will be lively and that experience, insight and enthusiasm will flow both ways. We have tried to group similar topics together in the programme to facilitate the discussion. There have been some logistical difficulties in organising the workshop - mainly down to the expense of attending ICSE, and we hope that this explains the participation of many students in ‘distributed mode’. Distributed means we will be using elluminate (, or Skype if all else fails). Indeed, this will provide an opportunity to build the mechanisms by which a distributed problem oriented community can thrive! Unfortunately, because of a health related issue, Professor Alistair Sutcliffe is unable to attend ICSE. Fortunately, we have our very own Jon Hall who has very kindly accepted our invitation to replace Alistair. As many of you know, for many years, Jon and Lucia have been working side-by-side with Michael Jackson on problem-frames and problem oriented software engineering. Jon will be talking to us about "Tangled Problems", a very stimulating topic indeed! This is the promised technical report for the workshop and after the workshop, we will invite papers for a special issue of Wiley-Blackwell’s Expert Systems: The Journal of Knowledge Engineering. We would like to thank the organisers of the Workshops for their time and boundless energy, and IARIA, the International Academy, Research and Industry Association, for their sponsorship. Thank you for attending IWAAPO 2010. I do hope you will enjoy it! Jon, Lucia, Liping, James

[4] Clara Mancini. Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI): A Manifesto. Technical Report 2011/04, April 2011. [ bib | .pdf ]
Although we have involved animals in machine and computer interactions for a long time, their perspective has seldom driven the design of interactive technology meant for them and animal-computer interaction is yet to enter mainstream user-computer interaction research. This lack of animal perspective can have negative effects on animal users and on the purposes for which animal technology is developed. Not only could an Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI) agenda mitigate those effects, it could also yield multiple benefits, by enhancing our inter-species relationships with the animals we live or work with, leading to further insights into animal cognition, rendering conservation efforts more effective, improving the economical and ethical sustainability of food production, expanding the horizon of user-computer interaction research altogether and benefiting different groups of human users too. Advances in both our understanding of animal cognition and computing technology make the development of ACI as a discipline both possible and timely, while pressing environmental, economical and cultural changes make it necessary. But what exactly is ACI about and how could we develop such a discipline? This Manifesto describes the scientific aims, methodological approach and ethical principles of ACI and proposes a research agenda for its systematic development.

[5] Tu Anh T. Nguyen, Richard Power, Paul Piwek, and Sandra Williams. Justification Patterns for OWL DL Ontologies. Technical Report 2011/05, May 2011. [ bib | .pdf ]
For debugging OWL-DL ontologies, natural language explanations of inconsistencies and undesirable entailments are of great help. From such explanations, ontology developers can learn why an ontology gives rise to specific entailments. Unfortunately, commonly used tableaux-based reasoning services do not provide a basis for such explanations, since they rely on a refutation proof strategy and normalising transformations that are difficult for human ontology editors to understand. For this reason, we investigate the use of automatically generated justifications for entailments (i.e., minimal sets of axioms from the ontology that cause entailments to hold). We show that such justifications fall into a manageable number of patterns, which can be used as a basis for generating natural language explanations by associating each justifi- cation pattern with a rhetorical pattern in natural language. Keywords: OWL, Justifications, Natural Language Explanation

[6] Vassilis Angelis. âEmpirical testing of a physiologically plausible computational model of rhythm perceptionâ. PhD Probation Report 2011/06, June 2011. [ bib | .pdf ]
This study will empirically test a physiologically plausible computational model of rhythm perception. This computational model (Large, 2000) has its theoretical background in non-linear dynamics. It has been suggested that non-linear dynamics provide a set of principles according to which “key aspects of musical experience can be explained directly in terms of nervous systems dynamics” (Large, in press: p.2). The aim of the present study will be to exploit the strengths of Edward Large's canonical model (Large, 2000) by testing it in previously unexplored areas, in order to see how effectively it can model human behaviour. More specifically, the model will be tested with polyrhythmic stimuli. The evaluation of the model will be based on the comparison of the model's outputs with existing empirical findings on behaviourally manifested aspects of human polyrhythm perception. A secondary aim is the possibility of using the model to inform the design of behavioural experiments in humans.

[7] L Jedrzejczyk, C Mancini, D Corapi, B A Price, A K Bandara, and B Nuseibeh. Learning from Context: A Field Study of Privacy Awareness System for Mobile Devices. Technical Report 2011/07, June 2011. [ bib | .pdf ]
In this paper we investigate the effectiveness of context-awareness and machine learning in ensuring social acceptance of real-time feedback in a social location tracking system. Real-time feedback is a novel privacy feature supporting bi-directional function of privacy management. Its main function is to deliver feedback to the user by using an appropriate form of notification every time a user‟s location has been checked. We evaluated our technology in the context of Buddy Tracker, our context-aware, location-sharing application for mobile devices. We report on our experience from the development process and also discuss findings of our field study with 15 participants. The findings show that context-awareness and machine learning can minimize the intrusiveness of real-time feedback, therefore making this important function socially more acceptable thus allowing users to benefit from the increased level of awareness that real-time feedback affords. We conclude with recommendations on how a better understanding of the user and application-specific context can improve the user experience and social acceptance of the system. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.5.2 [User Interfaces]: Evaluation/methodology, Graphical user interfaces (GUI), User-centered design. H.3.4 [Systems and Software]: Current awareness systems, user profiles and alert services. General Terms Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Theory. Keywords Feedback, mobile computing, location based services, privacy management, social translucence, context-awareness.

[8] Vassilis Angelis. Clarifying assumptions behind the empirical testing of a physiologically plausible computational model of rhythm perception. PhD Probation Report 2011/08, June 2011. [ bib | .pdf ]
The paper "Empirical testing of a physiologically plausible computational model of rhythm perception” (Angelis, 2010) proposed an examination of the accuracy of Edward Large’s computational model to simulate aspects of human’s rhythm perception. In that paper, a series of experiments were proposed to address the above proposition. A detailed description of these experiments can be found in the methodology section of the above document. The present paper seeks to clarify various cross‐disciplinary issues from the different disciplines involved, such as musicology, neurophysiology and mathematics. The issues to be clarified are the following: a) The musical reality or realities that the computational model addresses or attempts to account for. b) The physiological realities the model presumes (for instance details concerning the network of neural oscillators, the relationships between oscillators, and what happens when the brain confronts the musical situations documented in (a) above. c) An explanation of the distinctions between linear systems and nonlinear systems and the relevance of this to how we understand firstly, the ‘brain on music’ and secondly, the computational model. d) The ways in which these inform the mathematical model (the mathematics of the model need not to be explained fully, but the musical and physiological elements folded into that model do).

[9] Yijun Yu, Yu Lin, Zhenjiang Hu, Soichiro Hidaka, Hiroyuki Kato, and Lionel Montrieux. blinkit: Maintaining Invariant Traceability through Bidirectional Transformations - A Technical Report. Technical Report 2011/09, September 2011. [ bib | .pdf ]
Following the `convention over configuration' paradigm, model-driven development (MDD) generates code to implement the default behaviour that has been specified by a template separate from the input model, reducing the effort of decisions for developers. For flexibility, users of MDD are allowed to customise the model and the generated code in parallel. A synchronisation of changed model or code is maintained by reflecting them on the other end of the code generation, as long as the traceability is unchanged. However, such invariant traceability between corresponding model and code elements can be violated either when (a) users of MDD would protect custom changes from the generated code, or when (b) developers of MDD would change the template for generating the default behaviour. A mismatch between user and template code is inevitable as they evolve for their own purposes. In this paper, we propose a two-layered invariant traceability framework that reduces the number of mismatches through bidirectional transformations. On top of existing vertical (modelynchro- nisation between user and template code is supported, aligning the changes in both directions. Our blinkit tool is evaluated using the dataset available from the CVS repositories of a MDD project: Eclipse MDT/GMF.

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